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Urban and Territorial Governance

Assessing the Institutional Environment of Local Governments in Africa
UCLG Africa (2018)
The purpose of this publication is to alert the national governments of Africa of the urgent need to establish an environment conducive to the initiative and autonomy of the cities and local authorities by providing an assessment that allows them to benchmark themselves against the minimum standars required for cities and local authorities to contribute significantly to effective management of urbanisation in Africa. For each country, the publication outlines proposals for the reform that serve as a basis for technical and financial support from UCLG Africa and its partners. The 2018 edition adds two new criteria that correspond to Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement, namely climate change and gender.

Sub-National Governments in Africa – Situation and Challenges
UCLG Africa (2018)
In virtually all regions of Africa, the principle of self-government translates into a transfer of competencies previously exercised by central governments to sub-national governments. These bodies, within the framework of the exercise of these competencies, benefit from the legal persona and the financial autonomy necessary for the good fulfilment of their public missions. Although there are often large differences between African countries in terms of local governments’ competencies, their definition has been an important aspect of decentralisation policies. This paper attempts to provide precise answers to questions on the quantity, regional distribution of the sub-national governments in Africa, as well as analyse leeway offered to them by their central governments.

State of Local Economic Development Implementation in Africa
UCLG Africa (2018)
This assessment of local economic development programmes and projects in Africa documents ongoing initiatives and innovations developed in Africa on LED, but also reports on emerging narratives and debates emerging from these experiments. The publication deals with the genesis and debates on local economic development in Africa, looks at the space, the territory and the time in the implementation of LED programmes and projects, and analyses the regional dimension of the five thematic axes and the twelve LED guiding principles.

Translating Plans to Development: Impact and Effectiveness of Urban Planning in Tanzania Secondary Cities
World Bank (2018)
Translating Plans to Development is a study investigating the imapct and effectiveness of urban planning on city spatial development in seven Tanzania secondary cities: Arusha, Dodoma, Kigoma, Mbeya, Mtwara, Mwanza, and Tanga. It was conducted in support of the Tanzania Strategic Cities Project.

Developing Urban Futures
The Urban Age (2018)
The newspaper for the 17th Urban Age Conference in Addis Ababa consists of different essays. The topics range from “On hold with Jakarta” to “Africa’s Urban Transformation”. Challenges for cities worldwide and especially African cities are analysed. It shows that decentralization without financing and local capacity is a major issue. Decentralisation needs a political will.

Resilient Cities Report 2018
ICLEI (2018)
Resilient Cities is the annual global forum on urban resilience and adaptation convened in Bonn, Germany. The congress series provides an international platform to share the latest knowledge, good practices, challenges, and innovations for creating more resilient cities. It also serves as an annual meeting point to track local progress on the resilience targets of Sustainable Development Goal 11 to make cities inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable. This report reflects the outcomes of the Resilient Cities 2018 congress and global developments in the field of urban resilience and climate change adaptation.

Africa’s future is urban: Implications for EU development policy and cooperation
ODI (2018)
This paper builds on ongoing research to map relevant trends in the African continent and propose new directions for the EU’s urban agenda for Africa. It identifies priority issues, outlines the EU’s funding instruments and makes a number of recommendations for EU engagement with cities.

Re-shaping Decentralised Development Co-operation
OECD (2018)
This report analyses the evolution of financial flows, emerging trends and innovative paradigms related to the development co-operation of local and regional governments, including but not limited to official development assistance extended by sub-national governments. It promotes a territorial approach to development co-operation and provides policy recommendations to maximise the effectiveness, benefits and outcomes of DDC at all levels, while acknowledging the diversity of approaches, definitions and concepts across OECD DAC countries active in DDC.

Rethinking Urban Sprawl
OECD (2018)
This report by OECD provides a new perspective to the nature of urban sprawl and its causes and environmental, social and economic consequences. This perspective, which is based on the multi-dimensionality of urban sprawl, sets the foundations for the construction of new indicators to measure the various facets of urban sprawl. The report uses new datasets to compute these indicators for more than 1100 urban areas in 29 OECD countries over the period 1990-2014.

Global State of National Urban Policy
UN-Habitat (2018)
This study, building on regional studies by UN-Habitat and the OECD on the state of NUP for the 35 OECD member countries, provides a first attempt at assessing NUP trends, strengths and ways forward across member and non-member countries, and paves the way for the definition of a common methodology to monitor the progress of NUPs at the global level.

Rethinkinig Regional Development Policy-making
OECD (2018)
This report by OECD addresses questions related to the improvement of the design and delivery of regional development policies: What can governments do to enhance economic development in regions and cities? What lessons can be drawn from theory and practice to ensure public spending and investments contribute to regional development as effectively as possible? Bringing together frontier economic theory and country practices regarding performance frameworks, financial instruments, policy conditionalities, contractual arrangements and behavioural insights in regional policy, this report identifies cross-cutting lessons to help policy-makers manage common trade-offs when designing public expenditure and investment programmes for the development of regions and cities.

Leading Change: Delivering the New Urban Agenda through Urban and Territorial Planning
UN-Habitat (2018)
The International Guidelines on Urban and Territorial Planning (IG-UTP) are a pivotal component of the framework for delivering a sustainable urban future. This book by UN-Habitat contains the strategic considerations and supporting line of reasoning that need to be considered when applying the IG-UTP. It is not a primer on planning and hence does not cover every issue encompassed by the IG-UTP.

Urban Networks – Rethinking the city
Complexity Labs (2017)
The data on urbanization is in, and it clearly reveals that we are currently engaged in an intense process of transforming the environment within which humanity lives. Over the course of a century – 1950 to 2050 – we are transforming our environment from the natural rural habitat to an engineered urban habitat. This is a process of huge transformation, disruption, and development, a process the bulk of which will largely be over within a few decades from now, but how that process plays out is of critical importance to the future success of the global economy, society, and environment.

Implementing the new Urban Agenda by strengthening Urban-Rural Linkages
UN-Habitat (2017)
This publication on Urban-Rural Linkages reaffirms that the discourse on urbanization must depart from the traditional and outdated dichotomy of urban and rural; in order for urban and rural areas to be sustainable they must develop in tandem, inequalities must be reduced and the development gap bridged. Urban and rural spaces are inextricably linked economically, socially and environmentally and cannot be adequately dealt with in isolation from one another. Recognizing this urban-rural continuum also highlights how partnerships, collaboration and unity in action can yield dividends for all people, regardless of age, gender or whether they live in urban or rural areas.

Trends in Urban Resilience 2017
UN-Habitat (2017)
The publication´s purpose is to account for the unprecedented global momentum for resilience in the post-MDGs framework, building from an urban standpoint: inquiring the trends that drive the theory, investigating how these were gradually incorporated in development agendas, mapping the diverse landscape of actors involved, and analysing how this perspective shift can be translated into forward-looking urban policies and practices.

National Urban Policy in OECD Countries
OECD (2017)
Cities are crucial for national economic, social and environmental performance. A national urban policy (NUP) has been recognised by the international community as an important instrument for harnessing urbanisation to achieve national and global goals. This report, prepared for the United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III), provides an assessment of the state and scope of NUPs across 35 OECD countries. It also describes how urban policy, and its place in national political agendas, is evolving.

Economic Report on Africa 2017: Urbanization and Industrialization for Africa´s Transformation
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (2017)
The 2017 Economic Report on Africa examines how to harness the opportunities from rapid urbanization to speed industrialization and accelerate structural transformation. It identifies the drivers for strengthening linkages between industrialization and urbanization, shows that industrialization requires better functioning cities and systems of cities, which in turn require better performing industrialization processes, and stresses that African countries, can leverage the momentum of urbanization to accelerate industrialization for a more prosperous and equitable future.

Rural Livelihood Transformations and Local Development in Cameroon, Ghana and Tanzania
G. Steel and P. van Lindert, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), Working Paper (2017)
This working paper explores the importance of livelihood diversification and mobility in livelihood transformation processes in dynamic rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. It focuses on poverty dynamics, food security and local development. Based on empirical research conducted in Cameroon, Ghana and Tanzania, the study shows that improved connectivity is a major driver of rural livelihood transformations and local development in these countries. The transformations in agricultural production systems also create a range of additional rural non-farm labour opportunities for local people, which in turn stimulate positive socioeconomic dynamics in the region.

New Planning Culture in German Cities – Topics, Priorities and Processes: 55 Projects
Darmstadt University of Technology in cooperation with the German Association of Cities and the Federal Institute for Building, Urban and Environmental Research (BBSR) (2016)
This publication is an inventory of 55 projects for practical implementation that are examples of best practice where in individual cases cities are not only responsibly adopting new directions in the planning process, but also in many places have set qualitative standards for their basic planning goals, their priorities for plans and projects, and with regard to the regulations of their own planning procedures. Aimed at showing how current challenges in urban development can be overcome by innovative approaches, the publication concludes with an outlook on future challenges.

Metropolitan Governance: A Framework for Capacity Assessment. Guidance Notes and Toolbox
UN-Habitat and GIZ, Unpacking Metropolitan Governance series (2016)
UN-Habitat and GIZ have developed the Metropolitan Capacity Assessment Methodology (MetroCAM) as a joint contribution to implement urban sustainable development agendas and bring them to the metropolitan scales. With this modular toolbox, urban stakeholders are able to assess existing capacity in metropolitan settings, future needs, and potential trigger points and finally identify options for change.

The impact of SMART technologies in the municipal budget: increase revenue and reduce expenses for better public Services
Uraia , UN-Habitat, FMDV (2016)
The latest Uraía publication: “The impact of SMART technologies in the municipal budget: increase revenue and reduce expenses for better public services” is now available in English and coming soon in Spanish and French. The Guidelines analyze trends and opportunities regarding existing technological solutions, available to cities today, and also risks, challenges and lessons learned. Each chapter comprises city case studies, as well as interviews with key actors, and concludes with recommendations about the elements that enable the success of SMART initiatives.

New Urban Agenda in Action – Case Studies from a German Perspective
Federal Institute for Research on Building, Urban Affairs and Spatial Development (BBSR) (2016)
This study is understood as part of a German contribution to the debate on the tools and instruments necessary for the implementation of the New Urban Agenda. The focus of the study is on the creativity and openness with which many German municipalities, urban regions, and urban networks face current and ever more complex transformation challenges. The looming changes to actor and process-oriented dialogued planning culture in Germany is shown through case studies.

Making Cities Work for All: Data and Actions for Inclusive Growth
OECD (2016)
This report provides ground-breaking, internationally comparable data on economic growth, inequalities and well-being at the city level in OECD countries. It provides empirical evidence on how cities are diverging from, or converging with, other parts of the country, and of the extent of inequality within cities. Finally, it proposes a framework for action, to help national and local governments reorient policies towards more inclusive growth in cities – a new approach to growth that ensures that no part of society is left behind.

Sustainable Urban Development
GIZ (2016)
Building on decades of GIZ experience in bilateral, regional and global programmes the publication provide insights into GIZ’s contribution to sustainable urban development under the heading “designing tomorrow”s cities”. Multiple project examples (a selection) display GIZ’s broad thematic expertise. The experiences and knowledge gained over many years shall also provide inspiration for new projects and cooperations.

Transforming a ‘New Urban Agenda’ into a just urban agenda
Adriana Allen, Alexandre Apsan Frediani, Anna Walnycki; IEED (2016)
The revised Zero Draft lacks both an overarching vision that recognises the vital links between the three commitments and a consistent approach to implementation. The current contradictions threaten to make the commitments ineffective individual workstreams. To reach its transformative ambition, we argue that the final New Urban Agenda must make these connections, and suggest four specific ways in which it could achieve greater coherence and inclusivity.

The Urban Dimension of the SDGs: Implications for the New Urban Agenda
Dr Philipp Misselwitz with María Rosa Muñoz,Jesús Salcedo Villanueva and Anna Marie Walter; GIZ, TU, UC (2016)
The adoption of Agenda 2030 and the publication of the Zero Draft of the New Urban Agenda (NUA) has led to a lively discussion over which targets and indicators of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are of particular relevance to the NUA. How should NUA and SDGs be formally linked? A general trend has been to acknowledge that the urban dimension of the SDGs extends well beyond the dedicated goal (SDG 11) focused on cities and human settlements. As the NUA is being finalized into a policy document, there is increased urgency to define more precisely links to SDG targets and indicators. Our intention is to sharpen the NUA-SDG link and contribute to shaping the New Urban Agenda into a practical, implementation-oriented policy document that recognizes and empowers urban actors in their efforts to achieve the Agenda 2030.

Urban Governance for Sustainable Global Development: From the SDGs to the New Urban Agenda
Eva Dick; DIE (2016)
This briefing paper identifies urban governance issues which are currently neglected in the SDGs and require further consideration. Although there seems to be an increased awareness of the importance of cities for development, this paper argues that issues of urban and local governance need to be addressed in further detail and as cross-cutting issues. This applies to SDG 11 but also to goal 16 or sectoral goals such as SDGs 9 and 13.

Open Cities: From Economic Exclusion to Urban Inclusion
Solomon Greene, Rolf Pendall, Molly Scott and Serena Lei; Urban Institute (2016)
While cities drive economic growth in high-income countries, the benefits of urban economies are not widely shared among city residents. Income inequality is increasing, poverty persists and economic mobility appears blocked for many of those living in cities. Vulnerable groups face structural barriers and recent protest in cities across high-income countries highlighted the instability of the status quo.

Are We Underestimating Urban Poverty?
Paula Lucci, Tanvi Bhatkal and Amina Khan; ODI (2016)
As poverty measures and data collection methods have not caught up with the reality of an increasingly urbanised world, it is more and more likely that urban poverty is underestimated. This has important implications for interventions and allocating resources with regard to the 2030 Agenda. This report explores current problems with the definition of ‘slum’ settlements and data collection in urban contexts and provides recommendations on how to address these issues.

Leveraging Urbanization in South Asia: Managing Spatial Transformation for Prosperity and Livability
Peter Ellis and Mark Roberts; World Bank (2016)
Urbanisation presents South Asian countries with the potential to transform their economies to make their spaces prosperous and liveable. But while the region is making strides, it has struggled to capitalise on this opportunity. This report argues that undertaking difficult and appropriate reforms to improve South Asia’s trajectory of development is essential to making their cities prosperous and liveable.

Designing the New Urban Agenda: Lessons from International Agreements
Schreiber, F., Fischer, K., Dellas, E. and Carius, A. ; adelphi (2016)
In the process of drafting the NUA, three questions regarding its form and function are crucial. The first considers the broader framing: will the NUA reflect a clear vision on urbanisation and sustainable urban development, and if so, how? Second, what are the specific goals and desired impact of the NUA? What responses and actions should it trigger, and from whom? And third, what should the structure and contents of the NUA be and how will it be linked to other international agreements? This adelphi report addresses these questions.

Growing Resources for Growing Cities: Density and the Cost of Municipal Public Services in Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and Mexico
Libertun de Duren, N. R. and Guerrero Compeán, R.; IDB (2015)
This paper finds that per capita municipal spending on public services is strongly and non-linearly correlated to urban population density. This analysis provides strong policy support for densification, particularly for medium-sized cities in developing countries, which are currently absorbing most of the world’s urban population growth.

Competitive Cities: A Local Solution to a Global Lack of Growth and Jobs
Kilroy, A. F. L., Mukim, M., Negri, S.; World Bank (2015)
Growth of private sector jobs accounted for around 75 percent of job creation in cities worldwide. This report argues that city leaders need to know how to attract, retain, and expand the private sector. It analyses what makes cities competitive and how more cities can grow their economies.

Urbanization and Climate Diplomacy – The Stake of Cities in Global Climate Governance
Adelphi (2015)
Cities are increasingly asserting themselves at the global level, as evidenced by their growing prominence in international negotiation processes, particularly the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It is cities where the most ambitious climate action can be observed – but also the most harrowing failures. This indicates that cities, their needs and potential need to be better considered during climate negotiations. This paper examines the relevance of cities and city networks in the current international climate policy architecture, especially with respect to the evolution of intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs) and climate finance as well as other developments in the run-up to COP21. Furthermore, the paper addresses the role that cities should play based on their potential to drive climate policies from the bottom up.

Urbanization and Property Rights
Yongyang Chai, Harris Selod, Jevgenijs Steinbuks; World Bank (2015)
Since the industrial revolution, the economic development of Western Europe and North America was characterized by continuous urbanization accompanied by a gradual phasing-in of urban land property rights over time. Today, however, the evidence in many fast urbanizing low-income countries points towards a different trend of “urbanization without formalization”, with potentially adverse effects on long-term economic growth. This paper aims to understand the causes and the consequences of this phenomenon, and whether informal city growth could be a transitory or a persistent feature of developing economies.

Urban climate resilience, water and sanitation: Improving multi-stakeholder collaboration in Dhaka, Bangladesh
IIED (2015)
This paper attempts to identify a strategy for improving collaboration between stakeholders working in Dhaka city to improve climate change resilience of the urban water and sanitation (WATSAN) sector, with a focus on the urban poor. The findings are derived from reviewing existing literature and consultations with 32 key informants and five focus group discussions (FGDs) representing both low-income groups as well as other stakeholders (NGOs, government, academics). The output of the analysis reveals that heavy rainfall, flooding, water logging and heatwaves are the major climatic impacts that affect the water supply, sanitation and health of slum dwellers. Also, women are more vulnerable than men due to the lack of water supply and adequate sanitation facilities particularly during floods and water-logging conditions.

Green City Development Tool Kit
ADB (2015)
Adaptable, responsive, and innovative solutions that differ from one place to another enable Green Cities to emerge in various forms and enable us to recognize the variation and dynamism of cities.The term “Green City” has many different meanings to different people. There is no universal solution that can be applied to every city. Adaptable, responsive, and innovative solutions that differ from one place to another enable Green Cities to emerge in various forms and enable us to recognize the variation and dynamism of cities. Green Development considers how to improve and manage the overall quality and health of water, air, and land in urban spaces; its correlation with hinterlands and wider systems; and the resultant benefits derived by both the environment and residents. This tool kit is a reference for ADB staff, consultants, and city leaders that introduces key concepts of Green City development and identifies crosscutting issues that help in designing urban programs to support city development in a green and sustainable manner. It outlines a three-step city assessment framework and provides a summary of existing tools and resources for green and sustainable development.

E-Governance and Urban Policy Design in Developing Countries
Governance is about the processes by which public policy decisions are made and implemented. ICT can become a catalyst to improve governance in towns and cities and help increase the levels of participation, efficiency and accountability in public urban policies, provided that the tools are appropriately used, accessible and affordable. This book examines how ICT enabled governance is applied to urban policy design and highlights case studies, tools, methodologies, all reflecting current challenges and potential for the use of ICT in governance processes in cities.

Governing the City
OECD (2015)
Based on quantitative data about the governance structure of 263 OECD metropolitan areas with over 500,000 inhabitants and field case studies in 6 OECD metropolitan areas (Aix-Marseille, France; Athens-Attica, Greece; Chicago, United States; Daejeon, Korea; Frankfurt, Germany; Puebla-Tlaxcala, Mexico) this study finds that more than two-thirds of OECD metropolitan areas have established a specific metropolitan governance body. Those arrangements differ greatly in terms of legal status, composition, power and budget and are classified into 4 different types: informal/soft co-ordination, inter-municipal authorities, supra-municipal authorities and metropolitan cities. Findings show that metropolitan governance has significant development potential and can have positive impact on growth and well-being. In order to strengthen the potential of metropolitan governance arrangements, reforms need to build a long-term co-operation process between the various stakeholders beyond purely institutional changes.

The Metropolitan Century. Understanding Urbanisation and Its Consequences
OECD (2015)
The objective of this report is to explain the rapid urban development and factors for success and prosperity of cities. It finds that larger cities are generally more productive than smaller cities and that appropriate governance structures that are adapted to the specific context and particularities of each city contribute to economic strength. Although big cities provide citizens with many opportunities, particularly regarding higher wages and productivity, high inequality and spatial separation are particular challenges and can lead to social exclusion.  It is also stressed that, despite being a big source of pollution, urbanisation can also have positive environmental impact, depending on how cities are organised and cope with climate issues. The report concludes that urbanisation can offer great opportunities if it is shaped and accompanied appropriately.

Brick by brick – Transforming relations between local government and the urban poor in Zimbabwe
Chitekwe-Biti, Beth; IIED Working Paper (2014)
The paper considers how partnerships between local governments and urban poor groups can be used to underpin more inclusive, pro-poor urban development. It specifically examines the work of the Zimbabwe Homeless People’s Federation that has built a working partnership with the City of Harare. It considers how precedent-setting initiatives around community-led settlement upgrading and innovative funding mechanisms for upgrading have not only leveraged practical gains, in the form of improved housing and basic service provision, but have also been instrumental in the strengthening of this collaborative partnership. ZHPF have also pursued city-wide profiling and an alternative incremental approach to development in order to achieve strategic gains such as pro-poor policy and legal reforms. The findings hold lessons for the work of organised urban poor communities and urban authorities throughout the Global South.

Urban China: Toward Efficient, Inclusive, and Sustainable Urbanisation
World Bank; Development Research Center of China’s State Council (2014)
The report argues that China can save a total $1.4 trillion (15% of last year’s GDP) if it builds more efficient, denser cities and recommends using those savings to expand social services to all people—including migrants. The report further sets six priority areas for a new model of urbanisation. Those include: reforming land management and institutions; reforming the hukou household-registration system to provide equal access to quality services for all citizens and create a more mobile and versatile labour force; placing urban finances on a more sustainable footing, while creating financial discipline for local governments; reforming urban planning and design; managing environmental pressures and improving local governance.

Integrating the Environment in Urban Planning and Management – Key Principles and Approaches for Cities in the 21st Century
IIED / UNEP (2013)
Increasing urbanisation will be one of the defining features of the 21st century. While this produces environmental challenges, cities are also well-placed to achieve greater levels of sustainability if environmental concerns are integrated more centrally into urban planning. The report is intended to support urban decision-makers in this process. It reviews widely used planning tools, mainly the City Development Strategy (CDS), environmental mainstreaming and emerging ideas about the green economy. The report argues that such tools need to be supported by a number of underlying principles. Incorporating the environment in urban planning requires an integrated approach that should prioritise multi-level governance arrangements. Political support and commitment are crucial, as is the effective participation of urban residents in planning decisions. Additionally, it needs to be ensured that activities to address environmental issues in urban areas are harmonised and integrated with other levels of government.

Nigeria: Onitsha Urban Profile Rapid Urban Sector Profiling for Sustainability
UN-Habitat (2013)
The development of realistic structure plans for Awka, Onitsha, Nnewi, and the surrounding towns. This cooperation was borne out of the need to adopt development strategies for the provision of basic socio-economic and physical infrastructure in fast-growing, unplanned cities to attain sustainable human settlement development. Onitsha, the focus of the structure plan, is the most populous and rapidly expanding commercial and educational centre in Anambra State. In recent decades, Onitsha has had more than its fair share of the problems that accompany unplanned urban growth. These problems have attracted the attention of many scholars of repute who acknowledged Onitsha’s enviable heritage, which makes it an important religious, commercial, and educational centre, while bemoaning its decline due to ongoing bad governance and the consequent failure of land use planning, management, and security systems.

Time to Think Urban UN-Habitat Vision on Urbanisation
UN-Habitat (2013)
In the preparation of the 23rd Session of its Governing Council, the United Nations Human Settlements Programme published a paper on how they envision urbanization. UN-Habitats vision encompasses all levels of human settlements, including small rural communities, villages, market towns, intermediate cities and large cities and metropolises, i.e. wherever a stable community is continuously located and there are housing units together with permanent social and economic activities, common public space, urban basic services and local governance structure.

Urban Poverty Reduction: Learning by Doing in Asia
IIED (2012)

The Urban Governance and Infrastructure – Improvement Project in Bangladesh
ADB (2012)

Urbanisation and Development in South Africa: Economic Imperatives, Spatial Distortions and Strategic Responses
IIED (2012)

Financing Africa´s Cities: The imperative of Local Investment
AFD / World Bank (2012)
Online-publication as part of the Africa Development Forum Series

The State of Arab Cities 2012. Challenges of Urban Transition
UN Habitat (2012)

Guide pratique 1: L’Afrique urbaine, Construire en tirant parti du potentiel inexploité
UN-Habitat (2011)

Cities and Green Growth: A Conceptual Framework
OECD (2011)

Cities in a Post-2012 Policy Framework
ICLEI (2010)

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