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Climate Change

Turning up the volume: financial aggregation for off-grid energy
IIED (2017)
Investing in the decentralised renewable energy sector presents significant challenges. Financial aggregation – innovative ways of bundling together energy opportunities to lower transaction costs, risks, and the cost of capital – is emerging.  This paper explores the benefits and challenges of aggregation through five case studies, highlighting lessons learned as well as the need for further experimentation in this growing sector.

Resilient Cities Report 2017 – Tracking local progress on the resilience targets of SDG 11
ICLEI (2017)
The report ‘Tracking local progress on resilience targets of SDG 11’ reflects the outcomes of the Resilient Cities 2017 congress and captures broader developments in the field of urban resilience and climate adaptation. It is based on the expertise of international experts and practitioners who participated  at the congress, July 6-8 in Bonn, Germany. The report features case studies from around the world, highlights newly available tools and solutions, and provides an overview of the state of urban resilience globally by exploring new directions and innovations in the field.

Smallholder farming systems in coastal Kenya: Key trends and innovations for resilience
IIED (2017)
Smallholder farmers in coastal Kenya are already significantly affected by climate change, particularly in semi-arid and dryland areas. They have developed a number of innovations to enhance resilience and productivity, eg. crop diversification using resilient local varieties, new planting techniques and wild tree domestication. This report explores key trends in climate, livelihoods, food security, crop diversity and social capital in five Mijikenda communities, as well as traditional knowledge-based innovations to address climatic and socioeconomic challenges. It presents findings from the SIFOR project (Smallholder Innovation for Resilience).

Greening Africa´s Cities: Enhancing the Relationship between Urbanization, Environmental Assets and Ecosystem Services
The World Bank Group (2017)
A fast urbanizing Africa is rapidly degrading the environmental assets of its cities. Protecting those assets can increase the productivity and livability of these cities, improve tourism opportunities, and enhance resilience to the impacts of extreme weather events. This World Bank report highlights the opportunities and actions to change the current environmental trajectory towards a more harmonious relationship between urbanization, environmental assets and ecosystem services.

From Challenges to Solutions: How to Improve Integration of Climate Change Aspects into Urban Development Instruments, Strategies and Initiatives
Cities Fit for Climate Change Project (GIZ) and German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB)
This is the report of one of the International Learning Exchange Workshops organized by Cities Fit for Climate Change in partnership with Connective Cities in order to facilitate peer-to-peer knowledge exchange about climate-appropriate urban development among its three partner cities (Santiago, Chennai and Durban) and German and further cities. The workshop, held in Durban from 14 to 16 February 2017, pulled together a number of urban practitioners and gave them the opportunity to glean appropriate ideas from the workshop participants and to develop action plans for their own cities.

Delivering Real Change: Getting International Climate Finance to the Local Level
M. Soanes et al., International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), Working Paper (2017)
Evidence shows climate finance reaching the local level delivers effective, efficient and sustainable results that enhance the impact of each dollar disbursed. This working paper explores the flows of climate finance within the main international climate funds, to understand how effective they are in getting finance to the local level and what design features enable or prevent local financing. It distils lessons from development funds that are experienced in local financing. It concludes by highlighting the ways in which local climate financing can be enhanced – to further improve the effectiveness of aid.

Financing Urban Adaptation to Climate Change
European Environment Agency (EEA) Report No. 2 (2017)
Municipalities across Europe increasingly acknowledge the need to adapt to climate change and have begun to adopt various measures. Meeting the costs of adaptation measures for climate change is, however, a major challenge. Municipalities have found innovative ways to overcome that challenge and have started implementing measures. These solutions could be relevant for other cities, towns and smaller municipalities too, and examples are collected and presented in this publication as an inspiration. It offers insights into lessons learned on the ground regarding the most successful approaches, the difficulties encountered and overcome and the key success factors in financing local adaptation action.

Climate Change Financing for Cities in Indonesia. Case Study: Kupang
Henriette Imelda, Torry Kuswardono, Fabby Tumiwa (2016)
This document discusses the need for financing to support both climate change mitigation and adaptation to extreme weather events in Kupang, Indonesia. It finds that four aspects define Indonesia’s readiness for effective climate finance: planning capacity, accessing finance, good financial governance, and private sector engagement. This document is an output from a project commissioned through the Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN).

Measuring, Reporting, Verification (MRV) of Urban Low Emission Development
ICLEI (2016)
This handbook aims to guide the local government’s approach to effectively address climate change, with a strong focus on mitigation. Yet, it can also be used for integrated sustainable development, stimulating the local green economy, and many other topics, using climate action as an entry point.

Aligning Transnational Climate Action with International Climate Governance: The Road from Paris
Sander Chan, Clara Brandi, Steffen Bauer (2016)
Reflecting on the Paris outcome, this article discusses the role of non-State and subnational actors – especially on the road to the Paris climate change conference. It argues that the intergovernmental and transnational spheres of global climate governance could mutually reinforce each other by continuing mobilization efforts to engage non-State actors and by harnessing greater ambition, both from State and non-State actors.

The Paris Climate Package: A Basic Guide for Local and Subnational Governments
Yunus Arikan, Maryke van Staden, Jen Bogle; ICLEI (2016)
1. What processes led to the recognition and engagement of local and subnational governments in the Paris Climate Package?
2. How did local leaders engage in Paris?
3. What does the Paris Climate Package mean for local and subnational governments?
4. What steps should local and subnational governments take to support implementation of the Paris Climate Package?

Making Strides on Community Adaptation in Canada: Final Report
ICLEI Canada (2016)
This was a project created to bridge the gap between planning and implementation by increasing the uptake of existing implementation-related resources. There is a growing implementation gap amongst Canadian municipalities. This final report gives seven recommendations and case study examples of accessible strategies designed to address common constraints to implementing adaptation actions.

Decentralisation in West Africa: The Implications for Urban Climate Change Governance
Loan Diep, Diane Archer and Cheikh Gueye; IIED (2016)
Conducting a literature review, supported by two city case studies (Saint-Louis in Senegal and Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso), this paper looks at the linkages between decentralisation and urban climate governance. Decentralisation needs to progress further: confusion regarding overlapping roles and responsibilities between the central government and agencies acting at different levels need to be addressed and financing at the city scale remains a challenge.

Urbanising Thailand: Implications for Climate Vulnerability Assessments
Richard Friend, Chanisada Choosuk, Khanin Hutanuwatr, Yanyong Inmuong, Jawanit Kittitornkool, Bart Lambregts, Buapun Promphakping, Thongchai Roachanakanan, Poon Thiengburanathum, Pakamas Thinphanga and Santiparp Siriwattanaphaiboon; IIED (2016)
Summarising a series of studies, this report focuses on the dynamics of urbanisation and climate change risks as well as on the linkages between urbanisation, climate change and emerging patterns of urban poverty and vulnerability. This paper argues for a fundamental rethinking of urbanisation in Thailand. Current trajectories of urbanisation need to change; the future course needs to be based on a policy process founded on informed public dialogue.

City resilience toolkit: response to deadly heat waves and preparing for rising temperatures
NRDC, CDKN and partners (2016)
Higher daily peak temperatures as well as longer and more intense heat waves are becoming increasingly frequent and extreme heat events already significantly impact India.This toolkit aims to prepare the city of Ahmedabad, India, for extreme heat events. Further, it offers a roadmap/how-to-manual to other interested cities and states that plan to adopt heat preparedness plans, identifying steps and best practices.

The Paris Climate Package: A Basic Guide for Local and Subnational Governments
ICLEI (2016)

Investing in Urban Climate Resilience
DFID (2016)
The multi-donor Urban Climate Change Resilience Trust Fund aims to build resilience to the effects of climate change and reduce the vulnerability of the urban poor in 25 medium-sized cities in Asia. In addition to infrastructure investments, the trust fund provides grants that enable cities to prioritise actual resilience needs in their planning processes and service delivery. The partnership was initially founded by DFID, the Rockefeller Foundation and the ADB and has since welcomed USAID and SECO.

Close to Home: Subnational Strategies for Climate Compatible Development
CDKN / ICLEI Working Paper (2014)
The Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) and ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability have launched their Working Paper “Close to home: Subnational strategies for climate compatible development”. The paper argues that the battle for climate compatible development will be won or lost at the subnational level: in provinces, districts and cities. National governments depend on subnational actors to implement climate policies. The paper explores the questions of challenges and opportunities emerging in the context of progressing climate resilience and low carbon development at the subnational level and analyses the implementation of local initiatives and their dependence on national and international policies and actions, including finance.

The Plumbing of Adaptation Finance: Accountability, Transparency and Accessibility at the Local Level
WRI’s Climate Finance Series (2013)
The amount of international climate finance approved to help developing countries address the impacts of climate change increased considerably between 2008-2012. Much of this funding has been mobilised as developed countries seek to meet commitments to provide scaled-up finance to developing countries under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Developing country governments have increased their own spending to adapt to climate change and enhance resilience, recognising the risks that climate change already poses to their people and economies. But how much finance is actually available within developing countries? How is it used? Who receives the money? Is it reaching the local level? And are the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable being met? These are the questions that the Adaptation Finance Accountability Initiative (AFAI) tries to answer by analysing finance flows in Nepal, the Philippines, Uganda, and Zambia.

Mainstreaming climate change into community development strategies and plans: a case study in Thailand
Adaptation Knowledge Platform (2013)
Climate change adaptation planning in Thailand and elsewhere in Southeast Asia has focused primarily on minimising the impact of future climate change. The resulting preoccupation with the uncertainty of climate change predictions has hindered the implementation of adaptation policies. A paradigm shift towards mainstreaming climate change into development planning, and away from addressing adaptation separately from development can reduce the inaction of policy makers. By taking into consideration the range of possible risks and vulnerabilities that may arise from future climate and socioeconomic change scenarios, mainstreaming can reduce the reliance on certainty in predictions when developing plans for a community. The subsequent increase in a community’s resilience in the face of change is likely to lead to development that is more sustainable. A case study of Lao-oi district in Thailand illustrates such paradigm shift in planning, and proposes a framework for mainstreaming climate change into community development plans.

The local governance of climate change: new tools to respond to old limitations in Esmeraldas, Ecuador
Luque, Andres; Edwards, Gareth A.S.; Lalande, Christophe (2012)
This article argues that climate change, seen as a socially constructed anticipation of natural disasters and a future-risk that plays out in present politics, is enabling the emergence of new modes of governance in cities of the global south. The article focuses on the process by which the city of Esmeraldas, Ecuador, developed a Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy. Within the context of climate change adaptation, Esmeraldas mobilised new discourses, stakeholders, and planning mechanisms to address pre-existing urban planning and development limitations. This discursively enabled the municipality’s ongoing governance project by leveraging resources, creating consensus, and informing practice. Climate change adaptation thus became an important mechanism for engaging with local priorities, particularly those of the most vulnerable populations, and for bridging the gap between the formal world of policymaking and the reality of life in the city, which is more often structured by informality.

Meeting the climate change challenge in local government decision-making with the use of sustainable climate change adaptation modelling
Preston, Judith; Scott, Jennifer (2012)
This article intends to tackle it by firstly outlining some of the emerging issues that face humans and their interaction with the environment. The second part of the article will discuss, with reference to case studies, how local government is tackling the serious global issue of climate change. This discussion will focus on adaptation by compliance with existing and new legislation as well as the development of policies, programmes and standards. Finally, new directions for local governance and climate change will be examined.

Local Climate Change Governance
Pohlmann, Angela (2011)
This review provides an overview of the social science literature on local climate change governance. It aims to identify scientific issues and questions that contribute to an overall research focus on global transformation to a low carbon society. Thus, the guiding question is: What can local studies contribute to the topic of global transformations?

Costing Adaptation through Local Institutions. Synthesis Report
Worldbank (2011)
The Costing Adaptation through Local Institutions (CALI) study aims to highlight how adaptation by households to climate change and climate variability is shaped by institutions, and how governments, through local institutions, can support adaptation that addresses the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable households. The main objective of the study is to provide recommendations regarding adaptation options for households in rural regions and facilitate the necessary institutional support.

Area-Based Development, Local Institutions & Climate Adaptation: A Comparative Analysis from West Africa and Latin America
World Bank (2011)
This report presents the results of field-based research and original data analysis for six countries in West Africa and Latin America (Burkina Faso, Niger, Senegal, and Mexico, Peru, and the Dominican Republic). The studies were carried out over a period of two years during 2009–10, and involved in-country research partners as well as extensive consultations with decision makers at different levels and in different sectors.

Local Governance and climate change. A discussion note
This Discussion Note serves three purposes: To provide national and local policy-makers, as well as development partners, with an introduction to ways in which local government systems and institutions can and do interface with climate change issues. To outline ways forward that may improve the capacity and ability of local govements to address climate change and leverage their comparative advantage in doing so and to suggest ways for specialist climate change institutions and agencies to incorporate local government issues into their work and adjust their framework, strategy, and approach to strengthen CC work at the sub-national level. The Note focuses primarily on local governments in developing countries of the Asia-Pacific region.

Copenhagen Climate Finance Promise
IIED (2010)

Old, New and Future Funding for Environment and Climate Change – The Role of Development Cooperation
SIDA (2009)

The Role of Local Institutions in Adaptation to Climate Change
Agrawal, Arun (2008)
This review focuses on the role of local institutions in adaptation to climate change. It does so under the belief that climate impacts will affect disadvantaged social groups more disproportionately, and that local institutions centrally influence how different social groups gain access to and are able to use assets and resources. It suggests that adaptation to climate change is inevitably local and that institutions influence adaptation and climate vulnerability in three critical ways: a) they structure impacts and vulnerability, b) they mediate between individual and collective responses to climate impacts and thereby shape outcomes of adaptation, and c) they act as the means of delivery of external resources to facilitate adaptation, and thus govern access to such resources.

Thinking globally, acting locally — institutionalizing climate change at the local government level in Durban, South Africa
Roberts, Debra (2008)
This paper considers how climate change came to be considered by local government against four institutional markers: the emergence of climate change advocates among local politicians and civil servants; climate change as a signifi cant issue in municipal plans; staff and funds allocated to climate change issues; and a serious consideration of climate change issues within local government decision making. Considerable progress has been achieved on the second and third of these – but less so on the fi rst and fourth. The paper highlights how climate change issues need to be rooted in local realities that centre on avoiding or limiting impacts from, for instance, heat waves, heavy rainfall and storm surges and sea-level rise, and also the ecological changes and water supply constraints brought about by climate change. To date, international agencies have paid little attention to adaptation, as the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (mitigation) has been prioritized. This paper also stresses the importance of building local knowledge and capacity about climate change risks and adaptive responses.

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