Localising the SDGs /2030 Agenda /Post 2015

Localizing Global Agendas in Multilevel Governance Systems: The Benefits of Functional Assignment as Core Element of Decentralization Reforms
Rainer Rohdewohld, ADB Governance Brief, Issue No. 30 (2017)
In October 2016, the Habitat III Conference endorsed a “New Urban Agenda” emphasizing the challenges of urbanization, local governance, and urban planning in a sustainable and development-oriented way. These three global agendas are interlinked and interrelated. National governments, subnational governments and their associations, civil society stakeholders, and development partners have engaged in a discourse about “localizing global agendas”. The challenge of achieving policy coordination in multilevel and multisector settings is not a new one. This Governance Brief argues that achieving the objectives of the global agendas requires informed decisions and deliberate choices to design decentralized governance systems.

Localisation of Sustainable Development Goals: A literature review
LOGIN Asia (2017)
The Local Governance Initiative and Network is a multi-stakeholder knowledge exchange platform that promotes greater decentralisation and strengthened local governance in South and East Asia. The review seeks to collate and synthesize the ongoing discourse on the SDGs, highlighting the importance of localisation of the Goals. It aims to provide a ready reference through a collation of available literature on various aspects of implementing the Goal, including localisation.

PFD Research: National Strategies Supporting the Implementation of Agenda 2030
Policy Forum on Development (2016)
2016 was meant to be the year to set the grounds for the implementation of global commitments, in particular the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). For that reason, in 2015 the PFD has launched a series of country studies that look at the process and provide a better insight into the implementation of the Agenda 2030 at country level, with a particular focus on the role of CSOs and LAs. The studies have been elaborated by local researches following a common structure for all countries and the reports for the first selected countries: Indonesia, The Netherlands, Peru and Ghana, are already available so far.

Getting Started with the SDGs in Cities: A Guide for Local Stakeholders
Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN), German Cooperation, GIZ (2016)
This guide outlines how cities can get started with implementing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in cities and human settlements. In the interest of remaining applicable across a wide variety of development contexts, it provides general principles and processes that will need to be adapted to local conditions. This handbook complements an earlier SDSN National SDG Guide, “Getting Started with the SDGs- A Guide for Stakeholders” (https://sdg.guide/) that was developed for national governments and focused on country-level implementation. Together, the two guides provide a holistic framework for SDG implementation from the local through regional and national levels.

Roadmap for Localizing the SDGs: Implementation and monitoring at subnational level
The Global Taskforce of Local and Regional Governments, UNDP and UN-Habitat (2016)
All of the SDGs have targets directly related to the responsibilities of local and regional governments. Their achievement will depend on action in cities and territories. That’s why the Global Taskforce, UNDP and UN-Habitat have put together this Roadmap for Localizing the SDGs, in order to support local and regional governments in the implementation and monitoring of the SDGs. The Roadmap covers a number of important areas of action for local and regional governments in relation to the SDGs, including public awareness-raising, advocacy towards national governments, and implementation and monitoring. It is not a prescriptive ‘how to’ guide; rather, it covers a range of strategies that can be adapted to the specific contexts and needs of different cities and regions.

From MDGs to Sustainable Development For All: Lessons from 15 Years of Practice
UNDP (2016)
This Report offers lessons from the MDG experience, distilled largely by governments and stakeholders themselves, via National MDG Reports produced from 2013 to 2015. Over 50 countries’ National MDG Reports reflected on the totality of their MDG experience. The Report analyzes what worked under the MDGs and why. It ends with 10 concrete recommendations for SDG implementation, suggesting the policies, processes and practices that may help local leaders, change agents and stakeholders maximize the impact of Global Goals.

Sharing Responsibilities and Resources among Levels of Governments: Localizing the Sustainable Development Goals
Paule Smoke; UN (2016)
This paper discusses the implementation of the SDGs through local governance and decentralisation. It highlights the gap between theory and practise of decentralisation and intergovernmental reforms. Systems and institutional development varies among countries. The national and historic context has a major influence on the shape and structure of the subnational governments. This is why decentralisation is best based on a broad-based country consensus. The paper provides a way for adapting the SDGs in local contexts.

Mainstreaming the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: Reference Guide to UN Country Teams
UNDP (2016)
This reference guide is designed to support Member States and national stakeholders in adapting the 2030 Agenda to national contexts. It featureas an array of UNDP`approaches and Tools to adapt the Agenda to national, sub-national and local conditions and realities. Section B3 and B5 (creating vertical policy coherence) are especially interesting in the context of Localising the  SDGs.

Achieving the Impossible: Can We Be SDG 16 Believers?
Alan Whaites; OECD GovNet (2016)
This paper focuses on SDG 16 and discusses how development partners and other actors can better support developing countries to achieve this goal. The development community needs to focus increasingly on factors that can either positively or negatively influence the speed of progress on governance reform. Taking advantage of these factors, however, will require many development actors to radically change their practice.

The SDGs at City Level: Mumbai’s Example
Paula Lucci and Alainna Lynch; ODI (2016)
With urbanisation ever increasing, how countries deal with growing urbanisation over the next 15 years will define governments’ ability to achieve most of the SDGs. Analysing the performance on three SDG targets at slum and settlement levels in Mumbai, this report provides recommendations for early action regarding SDG implementation in cities.

The Sustainable Development Goals: What Local Governments Need to Know
United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG), 2015
All SDGs are local: from ending poverty to revitalizing the global partnership for sustainable development. This is why this publication explains how each of the 17 SDGs relates to the daily work of local and regional governments. It also lists the most relevant targets of each goal to local governments and highlights the relationship between the goals and other international agendas, such as climate change and Habitat III.

AidWatch Report: Looking to the Future, don’t Forget the Past – Aid Beyond 2015
Concord (2015)
2015 has been marked by important international decision-making moments, including the Financing for Development Conference in Addis, the Sustainable Development Goals Summit in New York and the lead-up to the climate negotiations in Paris. Given the importance of these events for the existing development framework, it is no surprise the EU declared 2015 the European Year for Development. The tenth CONCORD AidWatch Report takes stock of what the EU has achieved this year and, more importantly, it warns member states that the real work starts now. It is long past time for the EU to deliver on its commitments. This report looks to the future, but it does not forget the past.

Mind the Gap? A Comparison of International and National Targets for the SDG Agenda
ODI (2015)
The paper aims at assessing the gap between national and global targets for the SDG agenda by comparing policy commitments and objectives at the national level with corresponding SDG targets. Based on a gap analysis between national and global ambitions for 13 indicators across eight goal areas, the authors find that for low-income countries, there is a considerably bigger gap between their objectives and the achievement of the SDGs than for middle-income countries. The gaps identified provide indicators where particular efforts are required to achieve the SDGs and where low-income countries will need special support. The analysis concludes that the post-2015 development agenda should be aligned with national policy-making and planning processes and that there is a need for clear guidance of the SDG framework on national target-setting. Furthermore, the establishment of common indicators to enable comparisons across countries and to increase national accountability is recommended.

Establishing a workable follow-up and review process for the Sustainable Development Goals
ODI (2015)
A clearly defined and objective follow-up and review process for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is crucial to ensure the success of the post-2015 development agenda. This requires balancing global goals with differentiated development priorities and capabilities across countries and regions. Further, individual responsibilities for different stakeholders and countries, depending on their own priorities and their global role, might be necessary. The authors propose a framework for differentiated post-2015 SDG targets, distinguishing between universal targets, global minimum standards, implementation targets and nationally determined targets. In addition, universal endorsement and the articulation of a vision for sustainable development that applies to all people, addresses global public goods and outlines where collective action is needed, is required for the SDGs to be implemented successfully.

Localising’ the Post-2015 agenda: What does it mean in practice?
ODI (2015)
In the context of the debates on the localisation of the post-2015 agenda,  the very meaning of the concept of ‘localisation’ depends on each country’s specific context and the form of its decentralisation reform. In this paper, two possible meanings of this term and their practical implications are introduced and discussed: First, the concept of ‘localising’ can refer to the monitoring progress on the sustainable development goals (SDGs) at the local level. As a second option, it could refer to the role of local governments in the implementation of the SDGs. The author states that the two meanings of ‘localising’ are complementary and mutually interdependent. Regarding the challenges for local governments to transfer the theoretical concepts into practice, the workability of the framework, data availabilty and choosing targets and setting target levels at the local level are identified as crucial.

Financing the Post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. A rough roadmap
ODI (2015)
This report looks ahead to major international development financing meetings in 2015 and beyond. It aims to identify a set of recommendations for change that could be agreed upon collectively at those meetings. Finding space for agreement among 190-plus countries, of which the vast majority do not self-identify with terms like ‘donor’ or ‘recipient’, will be a great challenge. It builds on a burgeoning literature that converges on a likely new set of international Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and asks what must be done to implement them, including how best to fund them. Moreover, it tries to break down the complexity and interdependence of these questions to a few key pressure points on which action at the international level is both desirable and realistic, in a multipolar world relying largely on the limited prospects for consensus decision-making among governments. There is an equally limited ability of governments to shape incentives to drive the actions of private businesses and households, where most of the real actors are.

Financing Local and Regional Governments. The missing link in sustainable development finance
UCLG (2015)
Recommendations of local and regional governments for the Financing for Development Conference.

How to localize targets and indicators of the Post-2015 Agenda
UCLG (2014)
This paper was developed with the support of DeLoG. The proposal recognises the importance of both a stand-alone ‘urban’ goal and a wider ‘localising’ agenda that identifies a range of goals and targets that could be adopted at subnational level.

Reflections on Social Accountability. Catalyzing democratic governance to accelerate progress towards the Millenium Development Goals
UNDP (2013)
Over the past decades, an increasing numbers of development scholars and practitioners have argued that relationships of accountability between different social actors are central to improving service delivery and to making policy and planning processes more inclusive. Based on this discourse, many development institutions have adopted social accountability agendas that, on one hand, support civil society and citizens to engage in processes of service delivery and to exerting various kinds of pressure on their governments and, on the other hand, also support state capacity to respond to those voices and to live up to policy commitments. In the current context, the time is ripe to reflect on lessons from these initiatives and ask how they can further support positive changes in service delivery and democratic governance to deliver progress towards the MDGs and how they can influence the development of a new framework. Based on a review of available literature, this paper presents comparative experiences of social accountability initiatives across four themes: the use of information and communication technology; issues specific to the urban poor and the informal sector; countries in or emerging from conflict; and social inclusion.

Getting the Engagement of Local Institutions in the UN Development Agenda Post-2015
IIED, Human settlement group (2013)
The importance of local governments for development in low- and middle-income nations has long been recognised but rarely acted on. National governments have been reluctant to cede to local governments the funding or revenue-raising powers that are commensurate with their responsibilities. The official aid agencies and multilateral development banks work primarily with and through national governments (and often through sectoral national ministries) and have found it difficult to know how to support local governments (and local governance). Their interest in local governments is evident in current international discussions. The recent Rio+20 Summit formally recognised the organisations and networks of local and sub-national governments as a ‘Major Group’ in providing feedback to the stateled formal negotiations (UCLG 2012). The 2011 Busan Declaration affirms the role of local governments in ensuring a broad-based and democratic ownership of countries development agendas. The High Level Panel of Eminent Persons, charged with overseeing the preparations for the post-2015 Development Agenda, now includes in its membership United Cities and Local Governments’ (UCLG) president, the Mayor of Istanbul. But in general, the pivotal involvement of local governments in implementing and ‘localising internationally agreed development and environmental agendas remains under-recognised and under-supported. With regard to the MDG agenda in particular, the degree to which local governments must be relied on to achieve most of the goals has received virtually no attention.

World Bank – Global Monitoring Report 2013
World Bank (2013)
The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund released the latest version of their Global Monitoring Report in early 2013. Since there were less than 1000 days for the completion of the MDGs left, the report put emphasizes on the need to not only look at the variety of achievements in different countries but also at disparities between rural and urban areas.

The Post-2015 Development Framework: Issues, Challenges, Opportunities
BTC (2013)
The current debates on a post-2015 global development framework have produced a variety of proposals, objectives and means to achieve those. Deliberations on a new framework have to be built on lessons learned from the MDGs, and take into account the changing geography of poverty and future trends and challenges. This note gives an overview of where the current debates stand and which are the most pressing issues and challenges when designing a new post-2015 development agenda.

POST-2015 GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT AGENDA: Making the Case for Decentralisation and Local Governance
DeLoG (2013)

Post 2015: How to Reconcile the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)?
DIE (2013)

European Report on Development 2013 – Post-2015: Global Action foran Inclusive and Sustainable Future
DIE, ODI & ECDPM (2013)

Final meeting of the Global Thematic Consultation on Governance and the Post-2015 Framework – Review of Outcomes
UNDP / OHCHR (2013)

Inclusive Future – Inequality, Inclusive Growth and the post-2015 Development Framework
UNCDF (2013)

Realizing the Future We Want for All
UN System Task Team on the Post-2015 Development Agenda (2012)

World We Want 2015
Interactive web platform to discuss a post 2015 development agenda. Co-hosted by civil society and the UN

Beyond 2015
Global civil society campaign, pushing for a strong and legitimate successor framework to the Millennium Development Goals