Gender

Priority gender issues in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Moldova, Serbia and Ukraine
Pozarny, P., & Rohwerder, B.; GSDRC (2016)
This paper discusses the gender issues in Eastern Europe. It argues that women’s political participation is limited and therefore it analyses the progress in each country for improving the role of women. It comes to the conclusion that gender stereotyping and discrimination against women remain widespread. Also the participation in governance is still low, main reasons for this include lack of financing, traditional societal attitudes, little experience in public life roles and low interest. There are problems with implementation of the law and there is a lack of political will to advance gender equality.

Gender Roles and Opportunities for Women in Urban Environments
Pozarny, P. F.; GSDRC (2016)
This literature review focuses on a variety of urban issues and their impacts on gender roles, particularly women’s economic empowerment. Further, the paper compares these issues and findings to rural settings. It specifically examines issues such as care responsibilities, access to employment opportunities, power, decision-making, the use of earnings and gender-based violence. It also flags other relevant issues as appropriate.

Women, Leadership and Development: From SDG 5 to Habitat III
UCLG (2016)
This publication was presented at the 3rd Latin-American Summit of Local Agendas for Gender Equality: “Women and the City”, celebrated in Santiago, Chile, from 18-21 January, 2016. The report explores the role that gender equality at the local level will play into the achievement of the major international development and sustainability agendas. It also summarises the main conclusions of the session on “Women, Leadership and Development”, held in Paris on 6 December, 2015, in the framework of the UCLG World Council and the COP 21.

Gendering Decentralization in Cambodia
ICLD (2014)
Taking democratic decentralization and gender equality into account, this study aims to explore the space for women in Cambodia’s emerging local governance system.  Three critical issues will be empirically examined: the general impact of decentralization on gender issues; female representation in the commune council; and, women’s political articulation and influence in local politics.

Giving Women Voice in Local Governance Structures
ADB (2014)
Asia and the Pacific has made good strides in improving women’s political participation and representation in national and local level governance structures over the last decade. There are now more female parliamentarians, more women in local decision-making bodies, and more local women leaders. However, most countries have yet to achieve the international aspirational targets of 30% women in national parliaments. Across the region, many countries exhibit higher levels of female political representation at the subnational level compared with that at the national level, suggesting there is more political space for women at lower levels of government.

Green Jobs for Women and Youth. What can Local Governments Do?
UNDP (2013)
The understanding of the vulnerability of natural systems and its impact on human development has led to greater efforts to include climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies in the policy making process of many countries as well as at the highest level fora to inform both international and national policy agendas. However, a key question that still needs to be addressed is how these efforts can be translated into effective policies and programmes that will improve livelihood of people and communities through the creation of more decent local jobs; jobs which can also deliver environmental benefits as well as pathways to economic empowerment. These jobs are often called green jobs. It is expected that over 400 million people will join the workforce within the next decade and green jobs creation is thus seen as an opportunity to address this challenge as countries transition to green economies. This paper presents examples of policies and programmes initiated by local governments that promote green jobs especially for women and youth (persons between the ages of 15 and 24), with the aim of inspiring more local governments to consider policies that address the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development in a synergetic manner.

The benefits and constraints of urbanization for gender equality
IIED (2013)
Urbanization is often associated with greater independence and opportunity for women. But in many cities, there are also high risks of violence and constraints on employment, mobility and leadership that reflect deep gender-based inequalities. Among the key issues explored in this brief are where and when urban women enjoy advantages over their rural counterparts; community savings schemes that build women’s leadership and support upgrading of informal settlements; how transport planning fails to respond to women’s travel needs; how urban contexts can both reduce and increase gender-based violence how income and ideology influence women’s decision-making in rural and urban areas, drawing on research in Nicaragua; the changes in women’s participation in labour markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh and the tensions this can generate within households; what was learnt from a project working with girls and boys with disabilities in Mumbai, India; and the particular roles of women in seeking to get better services for their low-income/informal neighbourhoods in Bengalaru, India.

Ten ways local government can advance gender equity
Gender Equity in Local Government Partnership (2012)
The fact sheets are part of a resource package designed to build the capacity for local governments to consider gender equity in their planning, policy and service delivery 2012.

Decentralization, Local Development and Women´s Empowerment: Innovating Knowledge and Practice
Universitas Forum (2012)

Gender Impact Assessment Report on the Budget of Andalusia for 2012
UN Women (2012)

Gender and Property Rights: A Critical Issue in Urban Economic Development
Urban Institute and International Housing Coalition (2011)

Local Government for Gender Equality
Capacity.org (2010)

Gender in Planning and Urban Development
Commonwealth Secretariat (CLGF), Discussion Paper (2009)

Gender and Governance Overview Report
BRIDGE (2009)

A User’s Guide to Measuring Gender-Sensitive Basic Service Delivery
UNDP (2009)
Gender, governance and basic services are inextricably interlinked. They are essential for poverty reduction and growth from which all benefit.

DAC guiding principles for aid effectiveness, gender equality and women’s empowerment
OECD (2008)
Gender equality: empowering women so that development is effective.

Engendering aid
FRIDE (2008)
Analysis of the Accra outcomes

Equality for Women
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and World Bank (2008)
This volume documents trends both on the official MDG3 indicators and on an expanded set of indicators that provide a more complete measure of gender equality—especially in the area of women’s economic empowerment. The message that emerges is both hopeful and sobering: progress toward equality in capabilities (for example, education) has been considerable, but progress toward equality of opportunities for women’s economic livelihoods leaves much to be desired.

Decentralization, local power and women’s rights
IDRC (2008)
Global trends in participation, representation and access to public services.