Development Effectiveness

A micro-level Analysis of the Effects of Aid Fragmentation and Aid Alignment
German Development Institute (DIE), Discussion Paper 7 (2017)
This discussion paper investigates the effects of aid fragmentation and alignment with the recipient country on infant mortality at the sub-national level within Cambodia. By combining micro panel data on infant mortality and sub-national aid data, the results of this paper indicate that the degree of aid fragmentation is of no consequence for development in the health sector. By contrast, common arrangements within programme-based approaches led to positive effects in terms of an improved health situation in the Cambodian provinces. However, the analysis does not point to any beneficial effects of the use of recipient country systems.

Policy Brief on Development Effectiveness and Local Governments
Capacity and Institution Building (CIB) Working Group of UCLG (2016)
This publication provides insight in how and to what extent local governments around the world are being involved in the development, implementation and monitoring of national development strategies, mostly through their national representative associations.

Costs, benefits and the political economy of aid coordination: the case of the European Union
GDI (2016)
Although it is not possible to identify a specific, theoretical optimum level of aid coordination for the European Union, there is a broad consensus on the need for reduced transaction costs and greater impact through a stronger adherence to coordination standards. However, neither member states nor European institutions consequently follow a policy in line with a clear coordination principle. And nor do partner countries always push for more donor coordination. This article uses evidence from two country case studies, Myanmar and Rwanda, in which a conducive aid coordination environment is assumed. The former represents the new foundation of an aid architecture in a country, thus expecting the application of high aid effectiveness standards. The latter consists of a partner government with a strong leading role in aid. Although the political economy of donors and partner countries does not always favour coordination, strong recipient government leadership is crucial to align developmental objectives and clearly establish comparative advantages and division of labour among donors.

Stepping up? Best practice in joint programming and prospects for EU joint cooperation strategies
ECDPM (2015)
In a more globalised and competitive world the need for more effective international and development cooperation has only become more urgent and consequences of inaction more apparent. To meet the recently agreed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) all actors including EU actors will have to ‘raise their game’ to work together better. The European Union’s institutions and services and its Member States, have the potential to have a stronger influence in international cooperation because of Joint Programming.

The Global Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation: Origins, Actions and Future Prospects
DIE / GDI (2015)
This study analyses the commitments, actions and challenges of the international community in the development effectiveness debate. Starting with a description of trends in development assistance, aid modalities and innovative financing mechanisms, the author extensively analyses the High Level Fora in Rome, Paris, Accra, concluding with the Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation that was established at the 4th High Level Forum in Busan 2011. The concluding chapters of the study focus on key challenges and future prospects for the implementation of the Global Partnership and the post-Busan follow-up. The author finds that the Busan architecture has considerable potential for enhancing development cooperation. He recommends to regain a sharper focus on the Busan principles and goals and to give developing countries a stronger voice in setting future agendas.

Real innovation or second-best solution? First experiences from results-based aid for fiscal decentralisation in Ghana and Tanzania
DIE (2014)
This paper systematically records first experiences with results-based aid for fiscal decentralisation in Ghana and Tanzania. Results-based aid is an innovative aid modality that links funding to the achievement of of pre-agreed results, based on a contract between the donor and the recipient country. Observations from Ghana and Tanzania show that the modality holds great potential in incentivising better performance in fiscal decentralisation compared to traditional aid approaches. Yet, a number of challenges emerge during implementation, including trade-offs between country ownership and results-orientation or increased costs, for instance. Therefore, results-based aid is a promising aid-modality for fiscal decentralisation, but should be implemented in alignment with partner-country systems and harmonised with other aid modalities. Results-based aid can be one important element of the aid modality fix.

Measuring Aid Effectiveness at the Local Level: Case Studies of the provinces of Carchi and Esmeraldas: Ecuador
UNDP (2012)

Results Based Aid (RBA) – New Aid Approaches, Limitations and the Application to Promote Good Governance
DIE (2012)

Localising Aid: Can using local actors strengthen them?
ODI (2012)
Setting of a research programme to address whether the ‘Paris-style’ approach to using systems in order to strengthen them (i.e. transferring aid to and through those systems) is working.

Eficacia local de la cooperación europea – El caso de América latina y Perú (2007 – 2013)
Gabriel Voisin-Fradin (2012)

Better Aid Modalities: Are we risking real results?
ODI (2012)
This literature review examines six research topics which explore ways to improve the effectiveness of aid modalities.

Using Country Public Financial Management Systems: A practitioner’s guide
OECD (2012)

Where is the Paris Agenda heading?
Changing relations in Tanzania, Zambia and Mozambique
Bertil Odén and Lennart Wohlgemuth (2011)

Aid effectiveness: bringing country ownership (and politics) back in
David Booth (2011)

It´s the Peoples´s Ownership. Why the Aid Agenda Needs Democracy in the Post-Busan Era and How to Start Supporting it
IDEA (2011)

Implementing the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness
UNDP (2011)

Aid Effectiveness 2005-10: Progress in Implementing the Paris Declaration
OECD (2011)

The Evaluation of the Paris Declaration – Final Report
Danish Institute for International Studies (2011)

Donor Program Harmonization, Aid Effectiveness and Decentralized Governance
Paul Smoke and Matthew S. Winters (2011)
This paper considers the connection between the Paris Declaration commitments (with a focus on ownership, alignment and harmonization) and aid effectiveness in the context of foreign aid to support decentralization and local governance. Three case studies from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Indonesia and Uganda, prepared for the 5th annual meeting of DeLoG in June 2010, were used.

Aid, Growth and Devolution
Christian Lessmann and Gunther Markwardt (2011)
This paper examines whether the federal structure of aidreceiving countries matters in explaining aid effectiveness. Following the decentralisation theorem, the devolution of powers should increase aid effectiveness, since local decisionmakers are better informed about local needs. At the same time, decentralisation may have reverse effects. The paper finds that aid contributes to economic growth in centralised developing economies, while it is less effective or even harmful in decentralised countries.

“UCLG Position Paper on Aid Effectiveness and Local Government:
Understanding the link between governance and development

UCLG (2010)
This volume presents a preliminary framework designed to help international development partners consider the relevance of political economy issues for their programmatic support to decentralisation and local government reform.

“Political Economy of Decentralization Reforms: Implications for Aid Effectiveness”
Kent Eaton, Kai Kaiser, Paul Smoke (2010)
This volume presents a preliminary framework designed to help international development partners consider the relevance of political economy issues for their programmatic support to decentralization and local government reform.

The Aid Effectiveness Agenda: The benefits of going ahead
European Commission (2010)

Decentralization and Foreign Aid Effectiveness: Do Aid Modality and Federal Design Matter in Poverty Alleviation?
Christian Lessmann, Gunther Markwardt (2010)

Harmonisation, Decentralisation and Local Governance: Enhancing Aid Effectiveness
Ugandan workshop report (2009)

“Sector Budget Support in Practice – A Desk Study of Local Government Sector in Tanzania”
Per Tidemand (2009)

Giving local government a more central place in development. An examination of donor support for decentralisation
Jan Willem Nibbering and Rolf Swart (2009)
This paper tries to offer some basic insight into the complexity of decentralisation-processes and shows ideas of how donors can, together with capacity building organisations, support decentralisation through dialogue, facilitation, advice and funding.

Donor Approaches to Governance Assessment: Guiding Principles for enhanced impact, usage and harmonisation
OECD (2009)
An initial survey pointed to the risk of frequent duplication and overlap between donors’ governance assessment tools, as well as the need to improve practice with regard to greater reliance on partner country assessment processes. The survey also shed light on why, and how, donors make their own assessments and on the possibility of harmonising donor approaches to assessing governance.

Aid effectiveness and governance
Daniel Kaufmann (2009)
The Good, the Bad and the Ugly.

Implementation of Paris Accra in Latin America
FRIDE (2009)
Towards a regional Agenda in Latin America and the Caribbean.

International Good Practice Principles for Country-Led Division of Labour and Complementarity
Working Party on Aid Effectiveness (WP-EFF) (2009)

Foreign Aid: Essential to Security, but Money Alone Is Not Enough
Charles Cadwell (2009)
In the paper it is argued that foreign aid and a renewed emphasis on international development are essential to national security and international stability, but that money alone will not achieve the desired policy outcomes. Policies and institutions, not resources, pose the greatest constraints and require the most work ahead.

Profile of a donor darling
Joachim Schmitt (2008)

Behind the façade
Jan Waltmans (2008)
From analysis to action

Where Does the Money Go? Best and Worst Practices in Foreign Aid
Journal of Economic Perspectives (2008)

Southern non-dac actors in development cooperation
DIE (2008)
Financing for Development Series: Southern Non-DAC Actors in Development Cooperation.

Aid Effectiveness Agenda: Benefits of a European Approach
European Commission (2008)

Good governance, aid modalities and poverty reduction
Irish Aid (2008)
Final synthesis report – from better theory and practice

Harmonization and alignment
Eurodad and GMF (2008)
Challenges and opportunities for U.S. and European donors post-Accra.

Survey on monitoring the Paris declaration
OECD (2008)
Making aid more effective by 2010.

Setting an agenda for collective action
OECD (2007)
Policy paper and principles on anti-curruption.

Organizational challenges for an effective aid architecture
Jörg Faust / Dirk Messner (2007)
Traditional deficits, the Paris Agenda and beyond

Civil Society Perspectives Strengthening the Poverty Impact of the Paris Declaration: through Gender Equality, Human Rights and Social Exclusion
INTRAC (2007)
Although the Paris Declaration (PD) is essentially an agreement between donors and recipient governments, its core principles such as support for country ownership and managing for results provide possibilities for including a wider range of development actors – the civil society (CS) groups and NGOs, many of whom have been at the forefront of development  practice  for decades.

Aid Effectiveness Overview of the Results 2006 Survey on Monitoring the Paris Declaration
OECD (2007)
The Paris declaration on aid effectivesness defined a number of commitments on the part of donors and partner countries, and a set of indicators to measure progress towards 2010. Within the Working Party on Aid Effectiveness, the Joint Venture on Monitoring the Paris Declaration is responsible for the monitoring and follow-up of the Paris Declaration. This document is the Baseline Survey on Monitoring the Paris Declaration covering 34 partner countries with data from 60 donors.

Nordic Plus – Practical Guide to Delegated Cooperation
Norad Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (2006)

Nordic Plus – Barriers to delegated cooperation
Joint assessments of policies and administrative practices of the Nordic Plus donors (2006)

Incentives for Harmonisation and Alignment in Aid Agencies
OECD (2005)

Lessons Learned on Donor Support to Decentralisation and Local Governance
OECD (2004)